Secondary Osteoporosis Risk Factor, Secondary Osteoporosis Causes, Secondary Osteoporosis symptoms, Secondary Osteoporosis Treatment, Secondary osteoporosis,

Secondary Osteoporosis Risk Factor, symptoms, Treatment:

Osteoporosis

Secondary Osteoporosis Risk Factor, symptoms, Treatment: Secondary osteoporosis is a bone loss caused by disease or drugs, bone microstructural destruction, increased bone fragility, and metabolic bone disease that is prone to fracture. Secondary Osteoporosis Risk Factor, symptoms, Treatment. There are many causes of secondary osteoporosis, and it is more common in patients with endocrine and metabolic diseases, connective tissue diseases, kidney diseases, digestive diseases, and drugs. Secondary Osteoporosis Risk Factor, symptoms, Treatment.

You Will Learn:

1: Introduction:

2: Secondary Osteoporosis Causes:

3: Secondary Osteoporosis symptoms And Risk Factor:

4: Secondary Osteoporosis Secondary Osteoporosis Risk Factor:

5: Secondary Osteoporosis Treatment:

6: Secondary Osteoporosis Special Treatment:

1: Introduction:

What is Secondary Osteoporosis?

Secondary osteoporosis is caused by disease or drugs, bone loss, bone microstructural damage, increased bone fragility and metabolic bone disease that is prone to fracture. Osteoporosis occurs mostly in the elderly over 60 years old. The incidence rate is about 60%, and women are far more than men, so it is necessary to actively prevent the occurrence of osteoporosis, especially for the elderly with fracture risk to carry out the necessary prevention and monitoring.

2: Secondary Osteoporosis Causes:

1. Endocrine and metabolic diseases:
Hyperparathyroidism, Cushing’s syndrome, hypogonadism, thyroid hyperthyroidism, pituitary prolactin tumor, diabetes (mainly seen in type 1 diabetes), pituitary dysfunction psychosis.

2: Osteodystrophy:

A variety of chronic kidney disease leading to renal osteodystrophy.

3: Gastrointestinal and nutritional diseases:
Absorptive syndrome, postoperative gastrointestinal resection, chronic pancreatic disease, chronic liver disease, protein-calorie malnutrition, long-term intravenous nutritional support, etc.

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4: blood system diseases:
Leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, high snow disease, and abnormal bone marrow proliferation syndrome;

5: neuromuscular system diseases:
Hemiplegia, paraplegia, motor dysfunction, muscular dystrophy, stiff syndrome and myotonia syndrome caused by various reasons ;

6: Long-term braking or space travel:
7: after organ transplantation:
8: drugs:
Corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, heparin, anticonvulsants disease, the anticancer agent containing aluminum antacids, thyroid hormone, GnRH-a dialysate or the like.

3: Secondary Osteoporosis symptoms And Risk Factor:

1. Symptoms vary depending on the degree of osteoporosis and the nature of the underlying disease.
Most of the symptoms are more occult, no diagnostic specificity, often covered by the performance of the primary disease, many patients found that they have complicated osteoporosis when X-ray examination. Some patients complain of low back pain, fatigue, limb twitching or difficulty in activities. In severe cases, there may be obvious bone pain. Slight fractures are prone to fractures of the spine, ribs, hips or long bones. Rib fractures are more common in secondary osteoporosis than in primary osteoporosis.

2: the main signs and similar primary osteoporosis, may have to shorten the height, the occurrence of severe spinal kyphosis, kyphosis or thoracic deformity. Thin people are more susceptible to osteoporosis

3: a variety of clinical manifestations of the primary disease.

4: Secondary Osteoporosis Diagnosis:

Diagnostic indicator:

There is currently no clinical method for directly measuring bone strength, so the following diagnostic indicators are often used clinically: low bone density and/or fragility fractures. For secondary osteoporosis, it is also necessary to have a clear cause of osteoporosis.

1. Brittle fracture: It is the final consequence of the decline of bone strength. Therefore, it can be diagnosed with secondary osteoporosis by a fragile fracture caused by a clear disease or drug.

2. Determination of bone mineral density

Diabetic osteoporosis
3: bone density determination method: should pay more attention to the Z value when analyzing the results.
Diagnostic criteria

Refer to the diagnostic criteria recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). See the guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of primary osteoporosis.
X-ray film: low sensitivity and accuracy for the diagnosis of osteoporosis, so it does not help early diagnosis of osteoporosis. However, it is of great value to find out whether there is a fracture or not and to distinguish it from fractured tumor and joint disease.

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Determination of bone turnover biochemical indicators: There is currently no biochemical indicator for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. It is mainly used for bone conversion typing, determining the rate of bone loss, monitoring the condition, and evaluating the efficacy of the drug. Commonly used biochemical indicators of bone turnover can be found in the guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of primary osteoporosis.
Primary disease-related examinations that cause osteoporosis: such as liver and kidney function, autoimmune indicators, thyroid function, parathyroid function, gonadal function, and tumor-related examination.

5: Secondary Osteoporosis Treatment:

1. Treatment of primary diseases:

Actively searching for the cause of osteoporosis is of great significance for the effective treatment of secondary osteoporosis. Once the cause is clear, the primary disease should be treated promptly.

2, general measures:

pay attention to eating a balanced diet containing calcium-rich, low salt and moderate protein. Under the premise of not affecting the treatment of primary disease, appropriate outdoor activities to increase sun exposure, increase the coordination ability of the body, prevent wrestling, avoid alcohol and tobacco, and use other drugs that may affect bone health.

3, basic drug treatment:

Including appropriate calcium supplements, vitamin D or its active metabolites. Refer to the guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of primary osteoporosis. It is important to note that if the patient is accompanied by hypercalcemia, such as tumor or hyperparathyroidism, calcium and vitamin D preparations should be contraindicated. If the patient is accompanied by kidney stones and high urinary calcium discharge, calcium and vitamin D preparations should be used with caution.

4, drug treatment:

if necessary, give effective bone resorption inhibitors (such as bisphosphonates and calcitonin) treatment. Please refer to the guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of primary osteoporosis for drug usage and precautions. Whether bone formation promoters (such as parathyroid hormone amino acid end fragments) are suitable for secondary new osteoporosis, remains to be accumulated in future experience.

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6: Secondary Osteoporosis Special Treatment:

1: Sex Hormone Deficiency Osteoporosis:

Active treatment of primary disease. Young female patients need to add the right amount of estrogen or estrogen and progestin hormones, male patients should be added androgens. If necessary, use other types of anti-osteoporosis drugs. ‘Secondary Osteoporosis Risk Factor, symptoms, Treatment’

2: glucocorticoid osteoporosis:

Physiological doses of glucocorticoids can also cause bone loss, the most significant decrease in bone mass after 6-12 months of treatment. Some diseases require long-term use of glucocorticoids, and if the condition permits, the lowest dose should be used. Use This vitamin D and bisphosphonate anti-osteoporosis as appropriate to help prevent glucocorticoid osteoporosis. For patients with obvious bone pain, calcitonin drugs can be added.

3: braking disuse osteoporosis:

General treatment and drug treatment with primary osteoporosis, but pay special attention to functional exercise and rehabilitation treatment of the break site.

4: osteoporosis caused by long-term parenteral nutrition support:

General treatment and drug treatment with primary osteoporosis. Because this disease is easy to merge with snoring (or osteomalacia), in addition to the use of aluminum-free nutritional support solution, it is necessary to actively supplement the vitamin D preparation.

5: diabetic osteoporosis:

Mainly to strictly control high blood sugar, while the application of anti-osteoporosis drugs.

6: Osteoporosis after organ transplantation:

Its same as primary osteoporosis

7: hemodialysis osteoporosis:

prevention and treatment methods are the same as primary osteoporosis. Avoid using aluminum-containing dialysate and low-phosphorus dialysate.

Conclusion:

It is important to note that if the patient is accompanied by hypercalcemia. “Secondary Osteoporosis Risk Factor, symptoms, Treatment”  such as tumor or hyperparathyroidism, calcium and vitamin D preparations should be contraindicated.

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