Sexually Transmitted Infections Types: Causes, STI Symptoms, Treatment: Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are a whole group of diseases that have a negative effect on the urinary, reproductive, and other body systems. Pathogenic micro organismsare dangerous, which can be transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person during sex, through blood, and in very rare cases through household means.
Types of genital infections
There are 20 main types of genital infectious diseases, and they all pose a health risk. Very often, the patient does not even realize that he is
All infectious diseases are divided into three types according to the type of pathogen:
- Diseases caused by microbes – syphilis, gonorrhea, soft chancre, inguinal lymphogranulomatosis.
- Diseases provoked by the simplest protozoan species of microorganisms, the most common of which is trichomoniasis.
- Viral lesions – HIV, hepatitis, herpes, cytomegaly.
For each disease is characterized by its own symptoms and methods of infection:
- Syphilis. It is transmitted, both sexually and in a domestic way, through blood, saliva and seminal fluid, possibly placental infection of the child from the mother. The main symptoms are skin rashes, ulcers, nostalgia, headache, increased white blood cells and a decrease in hemoglobin. Read about syphilis.
- Chancroid (chancroid). Infection occurs only during sexual intercourse. The disease is characterized by the development of purulent processes, covering the nearest lymph nodes. External signs are non-healing ulcers with serous contents and edema around the circumference. The lesion covers the area of the prepuce in men, the labia in women. With unconventional types of sex may damage the mouth and anus.
- Trichomoniasis. Infection occurs during sexual intercourse, less frequently during household contacts. In women, the disease manifests itself in the form of hyperemia and itching of the mucous tissuesvagina, discharge with admixture of foam and unpleasant smell. In men, this is difficult, painful urination, frequent false desires to the toilet.
- Gonorrhea. The infection is transmitted during sex, through the patient’s personal items, as the infant passes through the birth canal. In men, the main signs -inflammatory processesurethral canal, pain when urinating, purulent discharge. If the pathogen penetratesprostate glandmay decrease erections. Gonorrhea in women is manifested by abundant secretions of pus, pain and a burning sensation when emptying urine. Read more about gonococcal infection (gonorrhea) here .
- Chlamydia. Differs in the latent nature of percolation and external manifestations, in fact, does not have. Mainthe symptoms appear only when the form is running and are expressed in pains, the itching of the genitals in a woman, and the same signs in a man during urination. Ways of infection -sexual contact, the use of linen and hygiene supplies of a sick person, the transfer from the mother to the child during the period of gestation and delivery.
- Candidiasis. It has typical manifestations in the forming inflammations mucous membranes of the genital organs and mouth, severe itching, intense discharge of a cheesy nature. Infection can develop as a result of sexual intercourse, with prolonged use of antibiotics.
- Human papilla virus. For infection, penetration into the body is typical for sexual and domestic methods. External signs -genital warts and wart son the mucous tissues of the genital organs and anus. Some species, especially, are dangerous – they lead to oncology of the breast and cervix in women.
- Urea plasmosis. It is transmitted to the baby during childbirth, sexually. Severe symptoms are often absent, in men, the infection provokes the development prostatitis with typical symptoms – pain, pain, difficulty urinating.
- Cytomegalovirus. Infectious agents are introduced into the tissue throughspermfemale, vaginal secretion, can affect a child during fetal development. Symptoms are mostly absent.
- Inguinal lymphogranulomatosis. Distribution occurs through sex. In men affectedpenis headthe woman has labia and vagina. Bubbles and ulcers appear at the site of infection. As thepathologies increase neck, inguinal and submandibular lymph nodes.
- Gardnerellosis.It is transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse, although in some cases the virus is capable of being introduced through everyday life. Since the pathogen actively suppresses the vital activity of lactobacilli, a person may experience problems with digestion and impaired normal bowel movement.
- Mycoplasmosis. More common in women with unprotected sex, causing kidney dysfunction, inflammationurethra and vagina.
- Hepatitis B and C).The infection has different ways of penetration – through blood, saliva, sperm, mother’s milk. Symptoms of infection can be loss of appetite, fatigue, pain in the liver, pain in the joints, dark urine, nausea.
- Herpes . A common, practically incurable disease, transmitted both sexually and by household means. Due to the fact that the pathogen not only has the ability to penetrate human DNA, it is embedded in the nerve fibers of the spine, where it remains, becoming inaccessibleinterferon and antibodiesimmune system. Being in a latent state, the virus is activated for any signs of a decrease in the body’s defenses. The rash is localized on the lips, the mucous membrane of the cheeks, eyes, in the areagenitalia, on the genitalia of women and men. Rashes disappear, most often, after 20-30 days.
- AIDS virus(HIV). Ways of infection – through blood, sexual intercourse (for more on the ways of HIV transmission). Symptoms of infection in the acute phase – fever, chills, joint and muscle pain, enlarged lymph nodes, rash, intestinal upset,vomiting, headache. For some time, the disease may not progress, continuing to destroy the immune system, after which there is a deterioration in the patient’s health.
- AIDS. A serious sexually transmitted disease. The main modes of transmission are oral andanal intercourse. Immunodeficiency syndrome has the following primary symptoms – high fever, general weakness, sweating, regular headaches, myalgia. Signs Often Appearintoxication – nausea, urge to vomit, difficulty in respiratory function.
- Pubic pediculosis. The peculiarity of the disease is the transmission not only sexually, but also through underwear and bed linen. Characteristicthe symptoms – severe itching, skin hyperemia in the area of the hairy part of the skin.
- Molluscum contagiosum.In addition to sexual relations, the disease is transmitted through the bottom, bed linen, household accessories, when applying a tattoo, through microtrauma at close contacts. The skin disease is expressed in the form of rounded papules – nodules, which over time increase in size and merge with each other, forming a vast affected surface.
- Epidermofitiya (inguinal fungus). Ways of infection – intimacy, close household contacts, the introduction of infection through items of cosmetics and personal hygiene. A typical symptom of the disease is severe itching, rash in the form of pink papules in the scrotum,penis in men, in the armpits, genitals, buttocks, the inner side of the knee and under the breasts in women.
- Scabies. The introduction of scabies mites occurs with prolonged contact, including during coitus, when the skin of the patient comes into contact with healthyepidermis. The main manifestations are intense itching, which becomes unbearable in the evening and at night, when the activity of the pathogen increases. Localization of lesions – genitals, lumbar, buttocks, chest, feet, inner thighs, armpits.
Sometimes there is the defeat of several types of pathogens. This situation is typical for people who are illegible in their intimate relationships, and are addicted to drugs or alcohol. The lack of reliable contraceptives and weak immunity increases the risk of infection.
In this video, the venereologist tells in detail about the types of genital infections, how they affect the organs, what symptoms they have and how to effectively deal with them.
And these are only the most common infections provoked by various pathogens. In each case, an individual approach to treatment and drugs effective for a particular pathogen will be required.
Causes of infection
The cause of the development of genital infections is the penetration into the body of pathogenic viruses, bacteria, simplest single-celled organisms, fungi.
- Lack of quality contraceptives.
- Casual sexual relations with unfamiliar partners.
- Insufficient personal hygiene.
- Donation and blood transfusions in case of accidents, operations, transplantation.
- Lack of timely treatment of infection before conception and during pregnancy.
However, there are always factors that contribute to infection. And, above all, it is a weakened immunity for various reasons. Alcohol abuse, an unbalanced diet, poor in the content of essential vitamins, mineral compounds and trace elements, constant stressful situations, physical overload lead to the fact that the immune system cannot cope with the pathology on its own.
Sexual infections lead not only to poor health, but also to serious consequences – infertility, impotence, and death.
For accurate diagnosis requires laboratory tests and the use of medical equipment. But any visit to the doctor begins with the collection of anamnesis and examination of the patient. Today, there are so many varieties of pathogens that baccosis and smear studies are clearly not enough to get a reliable result.
Diagnosis in men is performed using the following methods:
- Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a highly informative method of examination, which makes it possible to identify the type of pathogen by its DNA in the biomaterial from the secretion of the prostate gland, urethra, sperm and blood. Also, the method allows you to choose the right antibiotic for this virus. For examination of a patient, material is taken from the urethral canal.
- Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) – a method by which blood tests can be used to find antibodies to specific infectious organisms.
- Immunofluorescence is a laboratory blood test that gives maximum information about the protective forces of the male body, autoimmune disorders, endocrine system malfunctions, pathologies of the blood.
For examination of women, in addition to PCR and bacteriological seeding, the following is carried out:
- serological blood test to recognize antigens;
- histological examination of the tissues of the uterine cavity and cervical canal;
- clinical analysis of blood for hemoglobin, the level of red blood cells and white blood cells.
These methods are basic, but other diagnostic procedures are used if necessary. Studies allow you to choose adequate, comprehensive treatment.
The treatment of infectious diseases is individual for each patient and is complex. In addition, patients are put on record in the veneerologic facility until they are completely cured. The course is assigned to both the patient and his partner.
Therapy of genital infections in men and women provides for the rejection of sexual relations and the use of a complex of drugs:
- antibacterial agents in the form of tablets and injections;
- analgesics and antispasmodics for painful urination, headache, muscle, lumbar pain;
- anti-inflammatory drugs to relieve swelling, irritation, hyperemia of the skin of the mucous membranes;
- if necessary, antifungal medications;
- vitamins and immunomodulators to improve immunity;
- drugs for external use in the form of ointments, creams for rashes and ulcers.
The most effective against pathogenic bacteria and antibiotic viruses groups:
- Penicillins – Ampicillin, Amoxicillin.
- Nitroimidazole – Trihopol, Metronidazole.
- Aminoglycosides – Neomycin, Spectinomycin.
- Macrolides – Clarithromycin, Erythromycin.
- Fluoroquinolones – Ofloxacin.
- Tetracyclines – Doxycycline, Tetracycline.
Medicines are selected individually, as they can cause an allergic reaction. Antibiotics are used no more than 2-7 days in a row as directed by the doctor. For more information about antibiotics that are used in the fight against sexually transmitted infections –
We should also mention the treatment of human papilla virus infection. This is a lifelong disease and you can only muffle its manifestation. Read more about it.
In addition, in case of genital infections, rectal / vaginal suppositories are prescribed in combination with other drugs that help relieve inflammation, reduce pain and swelling. These include:
- antimicrobial suppositories Betadine, suspending inflammation;
- with trichomoniasis, the antibacterial drug Metronidazole is effective;
- Pimafucin – vaginal suppositories for women of antifungal action.
From immunostimulating agents during general therapy, such drugs as Cycloferon, Genferon are used. For women, syringes are prescribed, and for men, baths with a solution of potassium permanganate, Chlorhexidine.
In this video, the venereologist tells in detail about the treatment of genital infections. What drugs are better, how to build a system of treatment.
In severe conditions, inpatient treatment is shown under constant observation. In the early stages of the disease, the patient can be treated at home as directed by a specialist, observing the regimen of taking the necessary drugs, and sometimes bed rest.
In order to prevent infection, the following rules should be followed:
- use condoms and contraceptives among women;
- periodic inspection at gynecologist and urologist;
- if necessary, vaccination;
- intimate hygiene;
- the use of antiseptic solutions for suspected infection within a few hours after sexual intercourse;
- timely treatment infectious diseases.
For prevention of infection, women can use suppositories or Pharmatex cream, which is also a contraceptive. You can enter into the vagina candles Hexicon containing chlorhexidine.
After contact, both a woman and a man can treat the perineum and genitals with Miramistin solution.
Unfortunately, it is impossible to fully protect yourself against infection, and you can only reduce the risk of infection. However, if you lead an active lifestyle, strengthen the immune system, maintain monogamy in relationships, such problems as sexually transmitted infections can be avoided.